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Parser Configuration
 

Parser configurations built using the Xerces Native Interface are made from a series of parser components. This document details the XNI API for these components and how they are put together to construct a parser configuration in the following sections:

In addition, several examples are included to show how to create some parser components and configurations:

Note: All of the interfaces and classes defined in this document reside in the org.apache.xerces.xni.parser package but may use various interfaces and classes from the core XNI package, org.apache.xerces.xni.
Note: The source code for the samples in this document are included in the downloaded packages for Xerces2.

Components
 

Parser configurations are comprised of a number of parser components that perform various tasks. For example, a parser component may be responsible for the actual scanning of XML documents to generate document "streaming" information events; another component may manage commonly used symbols within the parser configuration in order to improve performance; and a third component may even manage the resolution of external parsed entities and the transcoding of these entities from various international encodings into Unicode used within the Java virtual machine. When these components are assembled in a certain way, they constitute a single parser configuration but they can also be used interchangeably with other components that implement the appropriate interfaces.

Note: Even though a parser is comprised of a number of components, not all of these components are configurable. In other words, some components depend on knowing the state of certain features and properties of the parser configuration while others can operate completely independent of the parser configuration. However, when we use the term "component" when talking about XNI, we are talking about a configurable component within the parser configuration.

The following diagram shows an example of this collection of parser components: (Please note that this is not the only configuration of parser components.)

Parser Components

The only distinguishing feature of a component is that it can be notified of the state of parser features and properties. Features represent parser state of type boolean whereas properties represent parser state of type java.lang.Object. Each component can also be queried for which features and properties it recognizes.

Interface XMLComponent
 

This interface is the basic configurable component in a parser configuration. It is managed by the XMLComponentManager which holds the parser state.

Methods 
public void reset( XMLComponentManager manager ) throws XMLConfigurationException;  
public Boolean getDefaultFeature( String featureId);  
public void getDefaultProperty( String propertyId);  
public void setFeature( String featureId, boolean state ) throws XMLConfigurationException;  
public void setProperty( String propertyId, Object value ) throws XMLConfigurationException;  
public String[] getRecognizedFeatures(); 
public String[] getRecognizedProperties(); 

Class XMLConfigurationException
 

Extends XNIException  
Constants 
public static final short NOT_RECOGNIZED; 
public static final short NOT_SUPPORTED; 
Constructors 
public XMLConfigurationException( short type, String identifier );  
public XMLConfigurationException( short type, String identifier, String message );  
Methods 
public short getType(); 
public String getIdentifier(); 

Components are managed by a component manager. The component manager keeps track of the parser state for features and properties. The component manager is responsible for notifying each component when the value of those features and properties change.

Before parsing a document, a parser configuration must use the component manager to reset all of the parser components. Then, during parsing, each time a feature or property value is modified, all of the components must be informed of the change.

Interface XMLComponentManager
 

The component manager interface allows components to query needed features and properties during a call to the XMLComponent#reset(XMLComponentManager) method. However, components should not keep a reference to the component manager. In other words, all necessary state should be queried when the component is reset.

Methods 
public boolean getFeature( String featureId ) throws XMLConfigurationException;  
public Object getProperty( String propertyId ) throws XMLConfigurationException;  

Note: A compliant XNI parser configuration is not required to use any components that implement the XMLComponent interface. That interface is included as a convenience for people building modular and configurable parser components. The Xerces2 reference implementation uses the component interface to implement its components so that they can be used interchangeably in various configurations.


Configurations
 

An XNI parser configuration defines the entry point for a parser to set features and properties, initiate a parse of an XML instance document, perform entity resolution, and receive notification of errors that occurred in the document.

A parser configuration is typically comprised of a series of parser components. Some of these components may be connected together to form the parsing pipeline. This parser configuration is then used by a specific parser implementation that generates a particular API, such as DOM or SAX. The separation between the parser configuration and parser instance allows the same API-generating parser to be used with an unlimited number of different parser configurations.

When a document is parsed, the parser configuration resets the configurable components and initiates the scanning of the document. Typically, a scanner starts scanning the document which generates XNI information set events that are sent to the next component in the pipeline (e.g. the validator). The information set events coming out of the end of the pipeline are then communicated to the document and DTD handlers that are registered with the parser configuration.

The following diagram shows both the generic parsing pipeline contained within a parser configuration and the separation of parser configuration and specific parser classes.

Parser Configuration

There are two parser configuration interfaces defined in XNI: the XMLParserConfiguration and the XMLPullParserConfiguration. For most purposes, the standard parser configuration will suffice. Document and DTD handler interfaces will be registered on the parser configuration and the document will be parsed completely by calling the parse(XMLInputSource) method. In this situation, the application is driven by the output of the configuration.

However, the XMLPullParserConfiguration interface extends the XMLParserConfiguration interface to provide methods that allow the application to drive the configuration. Any configuration class that implements this interface guarantees that it can be driven in a pull parsing fashion but does not make any statement as to how much or how little pull parsing will be performed at each step.

Interface XMLParserConfiguration
 

The parser configuration is the primary connection to specific parser instances. Because the parser configuration is responsible for holding the parser state, the addRecognizedFeatures(String[]) and addRecognizedProperties(String[]) methods allow the parser instance to add recognized features and properties that the parser configuration will store.


Interface XMLPullParserConfiguration
 

Parser configurations that implement this interface state that they can be driven by the application in a pull parser fashion.

Extends XMLParserConfiguration  
Methods 
public void setInputSource( XMLInputSource source ) throws java.io.IOException, XMLConfigurationException;  
public boolean parse(boolean complete) throws java.io.IOException, XNIException;  

Interface XMLEntityResolver
 

This interface is used to resolve external parsed entities. The application can register an object that implements this interface with the parser configuration in order to intercept entities and resolve them explicitly. If the registered entity resolver cannot resolve the entity, it should return null so that the parser will try to resolve the entity using a default mechanism.

Methods 
public XMLInputSource resolveEntity( XMLResourceIdentifier resourceIdentifier ) throws java.io.IOException, XMLParseException;  

Interface XMLErrorHandler
 

An interface for handling errors. If the application is interested in error notifications, then it can register an error handler object that implements this interface with the parser configuration.

Methods 
public void warning( String domain, String key, XMLParseException exception ) throws XNIException;  
public void error( String domain, String key, XMLParseException exception ) throws XNIException;  
public void fatalError( String domain, String key, XMLParseException exception ) throws XNIException;  

Class XMLInputSource
 

This class represents an input source for an XML document. The basic properties of an input source are the following: public identifier, system identifier, byte stream or character stream.


Class XMLResourceIdentifier
 

This represents the basic physical description of the location of any XML resource (a Schema grammar, a DTD, a general entity etc.)


Class XMLParseException
 

A parsing exception. This exception is different from the standard XNI exception in that it stores the location in the document (or its entities) where the exception occurred.



Pipelines
 

The Core Interfaces provide interfaces for the streaming information set. While these interfaces are sufficient for communicating the document and DTD information, it does not provide an easy way to construct the pipeline or initiate the pipeline to start parsing an XML document. The org.apache.xerces.xni.parser package has additional interfaces to fill exactly this need.

Each parser configuration can be thought of as two separate pipelines: one for document information and one for DTD information. Each pipeline starts with a scanner and is followed by zero or more filters (objects that implement interfaces to handle the incoming information as well as register handlers for the outgoing information). The information that comes out the end of the pipeline is usually forwarded by the parser configuration to the registered handlers.

There are two scanner interfaces defined: the XMLDocumentScanner and the XMLDTDScanner:

Interface XMLDocumentScanner
 

This interface defines an XML document scanner.

Extends XMLDocumentSource  
Methods 
public void setInputSource( XMLInputSource source ) throws java.io.IOException;  
public boolean scanDocument(boolean complete) throws java.io.IOException, XNIException;  

Interface XMLDTDScanner
 

This interface defines a DTD scanner. Typically, scanning of the DTD internal subset is initiated from the XML document scanner so the input source is implicitly the same as the one used by the document scanner. Therefore, the setInputSource method should only be called before scanning of the DTD external subset.

Extends XMLDTDSource, XMLDTDContentModelSource  
Methods 
public void setInputSource( XMLInputSource source ) throws java.io.IOException;  
public boolean scanDTDInternalSubset( boolean complete, boolean standalone, boolean hasExternalSubset ) throws java.io.IOException, XNIException;  
public boolean scanDTDExternalSubset( boolean complete ) throws java.io.IOException, XNIException;  

Notice how each scanner interface's scanning methods take a complete parameter and returns a boolean. This allows (but does not require) scanners that implement these interfaces to provide "pull" parsing behaviour in which the application drives the parser's operation instead of having parsing events "pushed" to the registered handlers.

After the scanners, zero or filters may be present in a parser configuration pipeline. A document pipeline filter implements the XMLDocumentHandler interface from the XNI Core Interfaces as well as the XMLDocumentSource interface which allows filters to be chained together in the pipeline. There are equivalents source interfaces for the DTD information as well.

Interface XMLDocumentSource
 

This interface allows a document handler to be registered.

Methods 
public void setDocumentHandler( XMLDocumentHandler handler );  
public XMLDocumentHandler getDocumentHandler();  

Interface XMLDocumentFilter
 

Defines a document filter that acts as both a receiver and an emitter of document events.

Extends XMLDocumentHandler, XMLDocumentSource  

Interface XMLDTDSource
 

This interface allows a DTD handler to be registered.

Methods 
public void setDTDHandler( XMLDTDHandler handler );  
public XMLDTDHandler getDTDHandler();  

Interface XMLDTDFilter
 

Defines a DTD filter that acts as both a receiver and an emitter of DTD events.

Extends XMLDTDHandler, XMLDTDSource  

Interface XMLDTDContentModelSource
 

This interface allows a DTD content model handler to be registered.

Methods 
public void setDTDContentModelHandler( XMLDTDContentModelHandler handler );  
public XMLDTDContentModelHandler getDTDContentModelHandler();  

Interface XMLDTDContentModelFilter
 

Defines a DTD content model filter that acts as both a receiver and an emitter of DTD content model events.

Extends XMLDTDContentModelHandler, XMLDTDContentModelSource  

The next section gives some basic examples for using the XNI framework to construct filters and parser configurations.


Examples
 

The following samples show how to create various parser components and parser configurations. The XNI samples included with the Xerces2 reference release provide a convenient way to test a parser configuration. For example, to test the CSV Parser Configuration example, run the following command:

java xni.DocumentTracer -p CSVConfiguration document.csv

Or a new CSV parser can be constructed that produces standard SAX events. For example:

import org.apache.xerces.parsers.AbstractSAXParser;

public class CSVParser
    extends AbstractSAXParser {

    // Constructors

    public CSVParser() {
        super(new CSVConfiguration());
    }

} // class CSVParser

The following samples are available:

Abstract Parser Configuration
 

This abstract parser configuration simply helps manage components, features and properties, and other tasks common to all parser configurations.

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.Hashtable;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.Vector;

import org.apache.xerces.xni.XMLDocumentHandler;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.XMLDTDHandler;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.XMLDTDContentModelHandler;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.XNIException;

import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLComponent;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLConfigurationException;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLEntityResolver;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLErrorHandler;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLInputSource;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLParserConfiguration;

public abstract class AbstractConfiguration 
    implements XMLParserConfiguration {

    // Data

    protected final Vector fRecognizedFeatures = new Vector();
    protected final Vector fRecognizedProperties = new Vector();
    protected final Hashtable fFeatures = new Hashtable();
    protected final Hashtable fProperties = new Hashtable();

    protected XMLEntityResolver fEntityResolver;
    protected XMLErrorHandler fErrorHandler;
    protected XMLDocumentHandler fDocumentHandler;
    protected XMLDTDHandler fDTDHandler;
    protected XMLDTDContentModelHandler fDTDContentModelHandler;
    
    protected Locale fLocale;

    protected final Vector fComponents = new Vector();

    // XMLParserConfiguration methods

    public void addRecognizedFeatures(String[] featureIds) {
        int length = featureIds != null ? featureIds.length : 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            String featureId = featureIds[i];
            if (!fRecognizedFeatures.contains(featureId)) {
                fRecognizedFeatures.addElement(featureId);
            }
        }
    }
    
    public void setFeature(String featureId, boolean state)
        throws XMLConfigurationException {
        if (!fRecognizedFeatures.contains(featureId)) {
            short type = XMLConfigurationException.NOT_RECOGNIZED;
            throw new XMLConfigurationException(type, featureId);
        }
        fFeatures.put(featureId, state ? Boolean.TRUE : Boolean.FALSE);
        int length = fComponents.size();
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            XMLComponent component = (XMLComponent)fComponents.elementAt(i);
            component.setFeature(featureId, state);
        }
    }

    public boolean getFeature(String featureId) 
        throws XMLConfigurationException {
        if (!fRecognizedFeatures.contains(featureId)) {
            short type = XMLConfigurationException.NOT_RECOGNIZED;
            throw new XMLConfigurationException(type, featureId);
        }
        Boolean state = (Boolean)fFeatures.get(featureId);
        return state != null ? state.booleanValue() : false;
    }
    
    public void addRecognizedProperties(String[] propertyIds) {
        int length = propertyIds != null ? propertyIds.length : 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            String propertyId = propertyIds[i];
            if (!fRecognizedProperties.contains(propertyId)) {
                fRecognizedProperties.addElement(propertyId);
            }
        }
    }

    public void setProperty(String propertyId, Object value) 
        throws XMLConfigurationException {
        if (!fRecognizedProperties.contains(propertyId)) {
            short type = XMLConfigurationException.NOT_RECOGNIZED;
            throw new XMLConfigurationException(type, propertyId);
        }
        if (value != null) {
            fProperties.put(propertyId, value);
        }
        else {
            fProperties.remove(propertyId);
        }
        int length = fComponents.size();
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            XMLComponent component = (XMLComponent)fComponents.elementAt(i);
            component.setProperty(propertyId, value);
        }
    }

    public Object getProperty(String propertyId) 
        throws XMLConfigurationException {
        if (!fRecognizedProperties.contains(propertyId)) {
            short type = XMLConfigurationException.NOT_RECOGNIZED;
            throw new XMLConfigurationException(type, propertyId);
        }
        Object value = fProperties.get(propertyId);
        return value;
    }

    public void setEntityResolver(XMLEntityResolver resolver) {
        fEntityResolver = resolver;
    }
    
    public XMLEntityResolver getEntityResolver() {
        return fEntityResolver;
    }

    public void setErrorHandler(XMLErrorHandler handler) {
        fErrorHandler = handler;
    }
    
    public XMLErrorHandler getErrorHandler() {
        return fErrorHandler;
    }

    public void setDocumentHandler(XMLDocumentHandler handler) {
        fDocumentHandler = handler;
    }

    public XMLDocumentHandler getDocumentHandler() {
        return fDocumentHandler;
    }

    public void setDTDHandler(XMLDTDHandler handler) {
        fDTDHandler = handler;
    }

    public XMLDTDHandler getDTDHandler() {
        return fDTDHandler;
    }

    public void setDTDContentModelHandler(XMLDTDContentModelHandler handler) {
        fDTDContentModelHandler = handler;
    }
    
    public XMLDTDContentModelHandler getDTDContentModelHandler() {
        return fDTDContentModelHandler;
    }

    public abstract void parse(XMLInputSource inputSource) 
        throws IOException, XNIException;
    
    public void setLocale(Locale locale) {
        fLocale = locale;
    }
    
    // Protected methods

    protected void addComponent(XMLComponent component) {
        if (!fComponents.contains(component)) {
            fComponents.addElement(component);
            addRecognizedFeatures(component.getRecognizedFeatures());
            addRecognizedProperties(component.getRecognizedProperties());
        }
    }

    protected void resetComponents() 
        throws XMLConfigurationException {
        int length = fComponents.size();
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
            XMLComponent component = (XMLComponent)fComponents.elementAt(i);
            component.reset(this);
        }
    }

    protected void openInputSourceStream(XMLInputSource source)
        throws IOException {
        if (source.getCharacterStream() != null) {
            return;
        }
        InputStream stream = source.getByteStream();
        if (stream == null) {
            String systemId = source.getSystemId();
            try {
                URL url = new URL(systemId);
                stream = url.openStream();
            }
            catch (MalformedURLException e) {
                stream = new FileInputStream(systemId);
            }
            source.setByteStream(stream);
        }
    }

} // class AbstractConfiguration

CSV Parser Configuration
 

This example is a very simple parser configuration that can parse files with comma-separated values (CSV) to generate XML events. For example, the following CSV document:

Andy Clark,16 Jan 1973,Cincinnati

produces the following XML "document" as represented by the XNI streaming document information:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<!DOCTYPE csv [
<!ELEMENT csv (row)*>
<!ELEMENT row (col)*>
<!ELEMENT col (#PCDATA)>
]>
<csv>
 <row>
  <col>Andy Clark</col>
  <col>16 Jan 1973</col>
  <col>Cincinnati</col>
 </row>
</csv>

Here is the source code for the CSV parser configuration. Notice that it does not use any components. Rather, it implements the CSV parsing directly in the parser configuration's parse(XMLInputSource) method. This demonstrates that you are not required to use the XMLComponent interface but it is there for building modular components that can be used in other configurations.

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.Reader;
import java.util.StringTokenizer;

import org.apache.xerces.util.XMLAttributesImpl;
import org.apache.xerces.util.XMLStringBuffer;

import org.apache.xerces.xni.QName;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.XMLAttributes;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.XMLDTDContentModelHandler;
import org.apache.xerces.xni.XNIException;

import org.apache.xerces.xni.parser.XMLInputSource;

public class CSVConfiguration
    extends AbstractConfiguration {

    // Constants

    protected static final QName CSV = new QName(null, null, "csv", null);
    protected static final QName ROW = new QName(null, null, "row", null);
    protected static final QName COL = new QName(null, null, "col", null);
    protected static final XMLAttributes EMPTY_ATTRS = new XMLAttributesImpl();

    // Data

    private final XMLStringBuffer fStringBuffer = new XMLStringBuffer();

    // XMLParserConfiguration methods

    public void setFeature(String featureId, boolean state) {}
    public boolean getFeature(String featureId) { return false; }
    public void setProperty(String propertyId, Object value) {}
    public Object getProperty(String propertyId) { return null; }

    public void parse(XMLInputSource source) 
        throws IOException, XNIException {

        // get reader
        openInputSourceStream(source);
        Reader reader = source.getCharacterStream();
        if (reader == null) {
            InputStream stream = source.getByteStream();
            reader = new InputStreamReader(stream);
        }
        BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(reader);

        // start document
        if (fDocumentHandler != null) {
            fDocumentHandler.startDocument(null, "UTF-8");
            fDocumentHandler.xmlDecl("1.0", "UTF-8", null);
            fDocumentHandler.doctypeDecl("csv", null, null);
        }
        if (fDTDHandler != null) {
            fDTDHandler.startDTD(null);
            fDTDHandler.elementDecl("csv", "(row)*");
            fDTDHandler.elementDecl("row", "(col)*");
            fDTDHandler.elementDecl("col", "(#PCDATA)");
        }
        if (fDTDContentModelHandler != null) {
            fDTDContentModelHandler.startContentModel("csv");
            fDTDContentModelHandler.startGroup();
            fDTDContentModelHandler.element("row");
            fDTDContentModelHandler.endGroup();
            short csvOccurs = XMLDTDContentModelHandler.OCCURS_ZERO_OR_MORE;
            fDTDContentModelHandler.occurrence(csvOccurs);
            fDTDContentModelHandler.endContentModel();
            
            fDTDContentModelHandler.startContentModel("row");
            fDTDContentModelHandler.startGroup();
            fDTDContentModelHandler.element("col");
            fDTDContentModelHandler.endGroup();
            short rowOccurs = XMLDTDContentModelHandler.OCCURS_ZERO_OR_MORE;
            fDTDContentModelHandler.occurrence(rowOccurs);
            fDTDContentModelHandler.endContentModel();
        
            fDTDContentModelHandler.startContentModel("col");
            fDTDContentModelHandler.startGroup();
            fDTDContentModelHandler.pcdata();
            fDTDContentModelHandler.endGroup();
            fDTDContentModelHandler.endContentModel();
        }
        if (fDTDHandler != null) {
            fDTDHandler.endDTD();
        }
        if (fDocumentHandler != null) {
            fDocumentHandler.startElement(CSV, EMPTY_ATTRS);
        }

        // read lines
        String line;
        while ((line = bufferedReader.readLine()) != null) {
            if (fDocumentHandler != null) {
                fDocumentHandler.startElement(ROW, EMPTY_ATTRS);
                StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(line, ",");
                while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens()) {
                    fDocumentHandler.startElement(COL, EMPTY_ATTRS);
                    String token = tokenizer.nextToken();
                    fStringBuffer.clear();
                    fStringBuffer.append(token);
                    fDocumentHandler.characters(fStringBuffer);
                    fDocumentHandler.endElement(COL);
                }
                fDocumentHandler.endElement(ROW);
            }
        }
        bufferedReader.close();

        // end document
        if (fDocumentHandler != null) {
            fDocumentHandler.endElement(CSV);
            fDocumentHandler.endDocument();
        }

    }
    
} // class CSVConfiguration

The source code is longer than it actually needs to be because it also emits the DTD information necessary for a validating parser to validate the document. The real core of the example is the following:

fDocumentHandler.startDocument(null, "UTF-8");
fDocumentHandler.startElement(CSV, EMPTY_ATTRS);

String line;
while ((line = bufferedReader.readLine()) != null) {
    if (fDocumentHandler != null) {
        fDocumentHandler.startElement(ROW, EMPTY_ATTRS);
        
	StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(line, ",");
        while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens()) {
            fDocumentHandler.startElement(COL, EMPTY_ATTRS);
            String token = tokenizer.nextToken();
            fStringBuffer.clear();
            fStringBuffer.append(token);
            fDocumentHandler.characters(fStringBuffer);
            fDocumentHandler.endElement(COL);
        }
	
        fDocumentHandler.endElement(ROW);
    }
}

fDocumentHandler.endElement(CSV);
fDocumentHandler.endDocument();



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