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Xerces-C++ 3.1.1
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DOM C++ Binding
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Design Objectives
 

The C++ DOM implementation is based on the Apache Recommended DOM C++ binding.

The design objective aims at meeting the following requirements:

  • Reduced memory footprint.
  • Fast - especially for use in server style and multi-threaded applications.
  • Good scalability on multiprocessor systems.
  • More C++ like and less Java like.

DOM Level 3 Support in Xerces-C++
 

The Xerces-C++ 3.1.1 contains an implementation of the W3C DOM Level 3 as specified in

Implementation of DOM Level 3 Core
 

The following are NOT implemented in Xerces-C++ 3.1.1.

  • DOMError: setRelatedException
  • DOMImplementation: createLSParser(MODE_ASYNCHRONOUS)
  • DOMTypeInfo: isDerivedFrom()


Using DOM API
 
Accessing API from application code
 
#include <xercesc/dom/DOM.hpp>

The header file <dom/DOM.hpp> includes all the individual headers for the DOM API classes.


Class Names
 

The DOM class names are prefixed with "DOM" (if not already), e.g. "DOMNode". The intent is to prevent conflicts between DOM class names and other names that may already be in use by an application or other libraries that a DOM based application must link with.

   DOMDocument*   myDocument;
   DOMNode*       aNode;
   DOMText*       someText;
         

Objects Management
 

Applications would use normal C++ pointers to directly access the implementation objects for Nodes in C++ DOM.

Consider the following code snippets

   DOMNode*       aNode;
   DOMNode* docRootNode;

   aNode = someDocument->createElement(anElementName);
   docRootNode = someDocument->getDocumentElement();
   docRootNode->appendChild(aNode);
         

Memory Management
 

The C++ DOM implementation provides a release() method for releasing any "orphaned" resources that were created through createXXXX factory method. Memory for any returned object are owned by implementation. Please see Apache Recommended DOM C++ binding for details.

Objects created by DOMImplementation::createXXXX
 

Users must call the release() function when finished using any objects that were created by the DOMImplementation::createXXXX (e.g. DOMLSParser, DOMLSSerializer, DOMLSInput, DOMLSOutput, DOMDocument, DOMDocumentType).

Access to a released object will lead to unexpected behaviour.

NoteWhen a DOMDocument is released, all its associated children AND any objects it owned (e.g. DOMRange, DOMTreeWalker, DOMNodeIterator or any orphaned nodes) will also be released.
NoteWhen a DOMDocument is cloned, the cloned document has nothing related to the original master document and need to be released explicitly.
NoteWhen a DOMDocumentType has been inserted into a DOMDocument and thus has a owner, it will then be released automatically when its owner document is released. DOMException::INVALID_ACCESS_ERR will be raised if releasing such owned node.

Objects created by DOMDocument::createXXXX
 

Users can call the release() function to indicate the release of any orphaned nodes. When an orphaned Node is released, its associated children will also be released. Access to a released Node will lead to unexpected behaviour. These orphaned Nodes will eventually be released, if not already done so, when its owner document is released

NoteDOMException::INVALID_ACCESS_ERR will be raised if releasing a Node that has a parent (has a owner).

Objects created by DOMDocumentRange::createRange or DOMDocumentTraversal::createXXXX
 

Users can call release() function when finished using the DOMRange, DOMNodeIterator, DOMTreeWalker. Access to a released object will lead to unexpected behaviour. These objects will eventually be released, if not already done so, when its owner document is released


Here is an example

    //
    //  Create a small document tree
    //

    {
        XMLCh tempStr[100];

        XMLString::transcode("Range", tempStr, 99);
        DOMImplementation* impl = DOMImplementationRegistry::getDOMImplementation(tempStr, 0);

        XMLString::transcode("root", tempStr, 99);
        DOMDocument*   doc = impl->createDocument(0, tempStr, 0);
        DOMElement*   root = doc->getDocumentElement();

        XMLString::transcode("FirstElement", tempStr, 99);
        DOMElement*   e1 = doc->createElement(tempStr);
        root->appendChild(e1);

        XMLString::transcode("SecondElement", tempStr, 99);
        DOMElement*   e2 = doc->createElement(tempStr);
        root->appendChild(e2);

        XMLString::transcode("aTextNode", tempStr, 99);
        DOMText*       textNode = doc->createTextNode(tempStr);
        e1->appendChild(textNode);

        // optionally, call release() to release the resource associated with the range after done
        DOMRange* range = doc->createRange();
        range->release();

        // removedElement is an orphaned node, optionally call release() to release associated resource
        DOMElement* removedElement = root->removeChild(e2);
        removedElement->release();

        // no need to release this returned object which is owned by implementation
        XMLString::transcode("*", tempStr, 99);
        DOMNodeList*    nodeList = doc->getElementsByTagName(tempStr);

        // done with the document, must call release() to release the entire document resources
        doc->release();
    };
         

String Type
 

The C++ DOM uses the plain, null-terminated (XMLCh *) utf-16 strings as the String type. The (XMLCh*) utf-16 type string has low overhead.

   //C++ DOM
   const XMLCh* nodeValue = aNode->getNodeValue();
       

All the string data would remain in memory until the document object is released. But such string data may be RECYCLED by the implementation if necessary. Users should make appropriate copy of any returned string for safe reference.

For example after a DOMNode has been released, the memory allocated for its node value will be recycled by the implementation.

   XMLCh xfoo[] = {chLatin_f, chLatin_o, chLatin_o, chNull};

   // pAttr has node value = "foo"
   // fNodeValue has "foo"
   pAttr->setNodeValue(xfoo);
   const XMLCh* fNodeValue = pAttr->getNodeValue();

   // fNodeValue has "foo"
   // make a copy of the string for future reference
   XMLCh* oldNodeValue = XMLString::replicate(fNodeValue);

   // release the node pAttr
   pAttr->release()

   // other operations
   :
   :

   // implementation may have recycled the memory of the pAttr already
   // so it's not safe to expect fNodeValue still have "foo"
   if (XMLString::compareString(xfoo, fNodeValue))
       printf("fNodeValue has some other content\n");

   // should use your own safe copy
   if (!XMLString::compareString(xfoo, oldNodeValue))
       printf("Use your own copy of the oldNodeValue if want to reference the string later\n");

   // delete your own replicated string when done
   XMLString::release(&oldNodeValue);

       

Or if DOMNode::setNodeValue() is called to set a new node value, the implementation will simply overwrite the node value memory area. So any previous pointers will now have the new value automatically. Users should make appropriate copy of any previous returned string for safe reference. For example

   XMLCh xfoo[] = {chLatin_f, chLatin_o, chLatin_o, chNull};
   XMLCh xfee[] = {chLatin_f, chLatin_e, chLatin_e, chNull};

   // pAttr has node value = "foo"
   pAttr->setNodeValue(xfoo);
   const XMLCh* fNodeValue = pAttr->getNodeValue();

   // fNodeValue has "foo"
   // make a copy of the string for future reference
   XMLCh* oldNodeValue = XMLString::replicate(fNodeValue);

   // now set pAttr with a new node value "fee"
   pAttr->setNodeValue(xfee);

   // should not rely on fNodeValue for the old node value, it may not compare
   if (XMLString::compareString(xfoo, fNodeValue))
       printf("Should not rely on fNodeValue for the old node value\n");

   // should use your own safe copy
   if (!XMLString::compareString(xfoo, oldNodeValue))
       printf("Use your own copy of the oldNodeValue if want to reference the string later\n");

   // delete your own replicated string when done
   XMLString::release(&oldNodeValue);

       

This is to prevent memory growth when DOMNode::setNodeValue() is being called hundreds of times. This design allows users to actively select which returned string should stay in memory by manually copying the string to application's own heap.



XercesDOMParser
 
Constructing a XercesDOMParser
 

In order to use Xerces-C++ to parse XML files using DOM, you can create an instance of the XercesDOMParser class. The example below shows the code you need in order to create an instance of the XercesDOMParser.

    #include <xercesc/parsers/XercesDOMParser.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/dom/DOM.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/sax/HandlerBase.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/util/XMLString.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/util/PlatformUtils.hpp>

    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;
    using namespace xercesc;

    int main (int argc, char* args[]) {

        try {
            XMLPlatformUtils::Initialize();
        }
        catch (const XMLException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.getMessage());
            cout << "Error during initialization! :\n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return 1;
        }

        XercesDOMParser* parser = new XercesDOMParser();
        parser->setValidationScheme(XercesDOMParser::Val_Always);
        parser->setDoNamespaces(true);    // optional

        ErrorHandler* errHandler = (ErrorHandler*) new HandlerBase();
        parser->setErrorHandler(errHandler);

        char* xmlFile = "x1.xml";

        try {
            parser->parse(xmlFile);
        }
        catch (const XMLException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.getMessage());
            cout << "Exception message is: \n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return -1;
        }
        catch (const DOMException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.msg);
            cout << "Exception message is: \n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return -1;
        }
        catch (...) {
            cout << "Unexpected Exception \n" ;
            return -1;
        }

        delete parser;
        delete errHandler;
        return 0;
    }
          

XercesDOMParser Supported Features
 

The behavior of the XercesDOMParser is dependent on the values of the following features. All of the features below are set using the "setter" methods (e.g. setDoNamespaces), and are queried using the corresponding "getter" methods (e.g. getDoNamespaces). The following only gives you a quick summary of supported features. Please refer to API Documentation for complete detail.

void setCreateEntityReferenceNodes(const bool) 
true:  Create EntityReference nodes in the DOM tree. The EntityReference nodes and their child nodes will be read-only.  
false:  Do not create EntityReference nodes in the DOM tree. No EntityReference nodes will be created, only the nodes corresponding to their fully expanded substitution text will be created.  
default:  true  
note:  This feature only affects the appearance of EntityReference nodes in the DOM tree. The document will always contain the entity reference child nodes.  

void setIncludeIgnorableWhitespace(const bool) 
true:  Include text nodes that can be considered "ignorable whitespace" in the DOM tree.  
false:  Do not include ignorable whitespace in the DOM tree.  
default:  true  
note:  The only way that the parser can determine if text is ignorable is by reading the associated grammar and having a content model for the document. When ignorable whitespace text nodes are included in the DOM tree, they will be flagged as ignorable; and the method DOMText::isIgnorableWhitespace() will return true for those text nodes.  

void setDoNamespaces(const bool) 
true:  Perform Namespace processing.  
false:  Do not perform Namespace processing.  
default:  false  
note:  If the validation scheme is set to Val_Always or Val_Auto, then the document must contain a grammar that supports the use of namespaces.  
see:  setValidationScheme  

void setValidationScheme(const ValSchemes) 
Val_Auto:  The parser will report validation errors only if a grammar is specified. 
Val_Always:  The parser will always report validation errors.  
Val_Never:  Do not report validation errors.  
default:  Val_Never  
note:  If set to Val_Always, the document must specify a grammar. If this feature is set to Val_Never and document specifies a grammar, that grammar might be parsed but no validation of the document contents will be performed.  
see:  setLoadExternalDTD  

void setDoSchema(const bool) 
true:  Enable the parser's schema support.  
false:  Disable the parser's schema support.  
default:  false  
note  If set to true, namespace processing must also be turned on.  
see:  setDoNamespaces  

void setValidationSchemaFullChecking(const bool) 
true:  Enable full schema constraint checking, including checking which may be time-consuming or memory intensive. Currently, particle unique attribution constraint checking and particle derivation restriction checking are controlled by this option.  
false:  Disable full schema constraint checking.  
default:  false  
note:  This feature checks the Schema grammar itself for additional errors that are time-consuming or memory intensive. It does not affect the level of checking performed on document instances that use Schema grammars. 
see:  setDoSchema  

void setLoadSchema(const bool) 
true:  Load the schema.  
false:  Don't load the schema if it wasn't found in the grammar pool.  
default:  true  
note:  This feature is ignored and no schemas are loaded if schema processing is disabled.  
see:  setDoSchema  

void setLoadExternalDTD(const bool) 
true:  Load the External DTD .  
false:  Ignore the external DTD completely.  
default:  true  
note  This feature is ignored and DTD is always loaded if the validation scheme is set to Val_Always or Val_Auto.  
see:  setValidationScheme  

void setExitOnFirstFatalError(const bool) 
true:  Stops parse on first fatal error.  
false:  Attempt to continue parsing after a fatal error.  
default:  true  
note:  The behavior of the parser when this feature is set to false is undetermined! Therefore use this feature with extreme caution because the parser may get stuck in an infinite loop or worse. 

void setValidationConstraintFatal(const bool) 
true:  The parser will treat validation error as fatal and will exit depends on the state of setExitOnFirstFatalError  
false:  The parser will report the error and continue processing.  
default:  false  
note:  Setting this true does not mean the validation error will be printed with the word "Fatal Error". It is still printed as "Error", but the parser will exit if setExitOnFirstFatalError is set to true. 
see:  setExitOnFirstFatalError  

void useCachedGrammarInParse(const bool) 
true:  Use cached grammar if it exists in the pool. 
false:  Parse the schema grammar. 
default:  false  
note:  The getter function for this method is called isUsingCachedGrammarInParse. 
note:  If the grammar caching option is enabled, this option is set to true automatically and any setting to this option by the user is a no-op. 
see:  cacheGrammarFromParse  

void cacheGrammarFromParse(const bool) 
true:  Cache the grammar in the pool for re-use in subsequent parses. 
false:  Do not cache the grammar in the pool 
default:  false  
note:  The getter function for this method is called isCachingGrammarFromParse 
note:  If set to true, the useCachedGrammarInParse is also set to true automatically. 
see:  useCachedGrammarInParse  

void setStandardUriConformant(const bool) 
true:  Force standard uri conformance.  
false:  Do not force standard uri conformance.  
default:  false  
note:  If set to true, malformed uri will be rejected and fatal error will be issued.  

void setCalculateSrcOfs(const bool) 
true:  Enable source offset calculation.  
false:  Disable source offset calculation.  
default:  false  
note:  If set to true, the user can inquire about the current source offset within the input source. Setting it to false (default) improves the performance. 

void setIdentityConstraintChecking(const bool); 
true:  Enable identity constraint checking.  
false:  Disable identity constraint checking.  
default:  true  

void setGenerateSyntheticAnnotations(const bool); 
true:  Enable generation of synthetic annotations. A synthetic annotation will be generated when a schema component has non-schema attributes but no child annotation.  
false:  Disable generation of synthetic annotations.  
default:  false  

setValidateAnnotation 
true:  Enable validation of annotations.  
false:  Disable validation of annotations.  
default:  false  
note:  Each annotation is validated independently.  

setIgnoreAnnotations 
true:  Do not generate XSAnnotations when traversing a schema. 
false:  Generate XSAnnotations when traversing a schema. 
default:  false  

setDisableDefaultEntityResolution 
true:  The parser will not attempt to resolve the entity when the resolveEntity method returns NULL. 
false:  The parser will attempt to resolve the entity when the resolveEntity method returns NULL. 
default:  false  

setSkipDTDValidation 
true:  When schema validation is on the parser will ignore the DTD, except for entities. 
false:  The parser will not ignore DTDs when validating. 
default:  false  
see:  DoSchema 

setIgnoreCachedDTD 
true:  Ignore a cached DTD when an XML document contains both an internal and external DTD, and the use cached grammar from parse option is enabled. Currently, we do not allow using cached DTD grammar when an internal subset is present in the document. This option will only affect the behavior of the parser when an internal and external DTD both exist in a document (i.e. no effect if document has no internal subset). 
false:  Don't ignore cached DTD.  
default:  false  
see:  useCachedGrammarInParse 

setHandleMultipleImports 
true:  During schema validation allow multiple schemas with the same namespace to be imported. 
false:  Don't import multiple schemas with the same namespace.  
default:  false  

setCreateSchemaInfo 
true:  Enable storing of PSVI information in element and attribute nodes.  
false:  Disable storing of PSVI information in element and attribute nodes.  
default:  false  

setCreateCommentNodes 
true:  Enable the parser to create comment nodes in the DOM tree being produced. 
false:  Disable comment nodes being produced.  
default:  true  


XercesDOMParser Supported Properties
 

The behavior of the XercesDOMParser is dependent on the values of the following properties. All of the properties below are set using the "setter" methods (e.g. setExternalSchemaLocation), and are queried using the corresponding "getter" methods (e.g. getExternalSchemaLocation). The following only gives you a quick summary of supported features. Please refer to API Documentation for complete details.

void setExternalSchemaLocation(const XMLCh*) 
Description  The XML Schema Recommendation explicitly states that the inclusion of schemaLocation/ noNamespaceSchemaLocation attributes in the instance document is only a hint; it does not mandate that these attributes must be used to locate schemas. Similar situation happens to <import> element in schema documents. This property allows the user to specify a list of schemas to use. If the targetNamespace of a schema specified using this method matches the targetNamespace of a schema occurring in the instance document in schemaLocation attribute, or if the targetNamespace matches the namespace attribute of <import> element, the schema specified by the user using this property will be used (i.e., the schemaLocation attribute in the instance document or on the <import> element will be effectively ignored). 
Value  The syntax is the same as for schemaLocation attributes in instance documents: e.g, "http://www.example.com file_name.xsd". The user can specify more than one XML Schema in the list. 
Value Type  XMLCh*  

void setExternalNoNamespaceSchemaLocation(const XMLCh* const) 
Description  The XML Schema Recommendation explicitly states that the inclusion of schemaLocation/ noNamespaceSchemaLocation attributes in the instance document is only a hint; it does not mandate that these attributes must be used to locate schemas. This property allows the user to specify the no target namespace XML Schema Location externally. If specified, the instance document's noNamespaceSchemaLocation attribute will be effectively ignored. 
Value  The syntax is the same as for the noNamespaceSchemaLocation attribute that may occur in an instance document: e.g."file_name.xsd". 
Value Type  XMLCh*  

void useScanner(const XMLCh* const) 
Description  This property allows the user to specify the name of the XMLScanner to use for scanning XML documents. If not specified, the default scanner "IGXMLScanner" is used. 
Value  The recognized scanner names are:
1."WFXMLScanner" - scanner that performs well-formedness checking only.
2. "DGXMLScanner" - scanner that handles XML documents with DTD grammar information.
3. "SGXMLScanner" - scanner that handles XML documents with XML schema grammar information.
4. "IGXMLScanner" - scanner that handles XML documents with DTD or/and XML schema grammar information.
Users can use the predefined constants defined in XMLUni directly (fgWFXMLScanner, fgDGXMLScanner, fgSGXMLScanner, or fgIGXMLScanner) or a string that matches the value of one of those constants. 
Value Type  XMLCh*  
note:   See Use Specific Scanner for more programming details.  

void useImplementation(const XMLCh* const) 
Description  This property allows the user to specify a set of features which the parser will then use to acquire an implementation from which it will create the DOMDocument to use when reading in an XML file. 
Value Type  XMLCh*  

setSecurityManager(Security Manager * const) 
Description  Certain valid XML and XML Schema constructs can force a processor to consume more system resources than an application may wish. In fact, certain features could be exploited by malicious document writers to produce a denial-of-service attack. This property allows applications to impose limits on the amount of resources the processor will consume while processing these constructs.  
Value  An instance of the SecurityManager class (see xercesc/util/SecurityManager). This class's documentation describes the particular limits that may be set. Note that, when instantiated, default values for limits that should be appropriate in most settings are provided. The default implementation is not thread-safe; if thread-safety is required, the application should extend this class, overriding methods appropriately. The parser will not adopt the SecurityManager instance; the application is responsible for deleting it when it is finished with it. If no SecurityManager instance has been provided to the parser (the default) then processing strictly conforming to the relevant specifications will be performed.  
Value Type  SecurityManager*  

setLowWaterMark(XMLSize_t) 
Description  If the number of available bytes in the raw buffer is less than the low water mark the parser will attempt to read more data before continuing parsing. By default the value for this parameter is 100 bytes. You may want to set this parameter to 0 if you would like the parser to parse the available data immediately without potentially blocking while waiting for more date.  
Value  New low water mark.  
Value Type  XMLSize_t  



DOMLSParser
 
Constructing a DOMLSParser
 

DOMLSParser is a new interface introduced by the W3C DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification. DOMLSParser provides the "Load" interface for parsing XML documents and building the corresponding DOM document tree from various input sources.

A DOMLSParser instance is obtained from the DOMImplementationLS interface by invoking its createLSParser method. For example:

    #include <xercesc/dom/DOM.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/util/XMLString.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/util/PlatformUtils.hpp>

    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;
    using namespace xercesc;

    int main (int argc, char* args[]) {

        try {
            XMLPlatformUtils::Initialize();
        }
        catch (const XMLException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.getMessage());
            cout << "Error during initialization! :\n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return 1;
        }


        XMLCh tempStr[100];
        XMLString::transcode("LS", tempStr, 99);
        DOMImplementation *impl = DOMImplementationRegistry::getDOMImplementation(tempStr);
        DOMLSParser* parser = ((DOMImplementationLS*)impl)->createLSParser(DOMImplementationLS::MODE_SYNCHRONOUS, 0);

        // optionally you can set some features on this builder
        if (parser->getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMValidate, true))
            parser->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMValidate, true);
        if (parser->getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMNamespaces, true))
            parser->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMNamespaces, true);
        if (parser->getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMDatatypeNormalization, true))
            parser->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMDatatypeNormalization, true);


        // optionally you can implement your DOMErrorHandler (e.g. MyDOMErrorHandler)
        // and set it to the builder
        MyDOMErrorHandler* errHandler = new myDOMErrorHandler();
        parser->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMErrorHandler, errHandler);

        char* xmlFile = "x1.xml";
        DOMDocument *doc = 0;

        try {
            doc = parser->parseURI(xmlFile);
        }
        catch (const XMLException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.getMessage());
            cout << "Exception message is: \n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return -1;
        }
        catch (const DOMException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.msg);
            cout << "Exception message is: \n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return -1;
        }
        catch (...) {
            cout << "Unexpected Exception \n" ;
            return -1;
        }

        parser->release();
        delete errHandler;
        return 0;
    }
    

Please refer to the API Documentation and the sample DOMCount for more detail.


How to interchange DOMLSInput and SAX InputSource?
 

DOM L3 has introduced a DOMLSInput which is similar to the SAX InputSource. The Xerces-C++ internals (XMLScanner, Reader, etc.) use the SAX InputSource to process the xml data. In order to support DOM L3, we need to provide a mechanism to allow the Xerces-C++ internals to talk to a DOMLSInput object. Similarly, Xerces-C++ provides some framework classes for specialized types of input source (i.e. LocalFileInputSource, etc.) that are derived from the SAX InputSource. In DOM L3, to allow users implementing their own DOMLSResourceResolver(s), which return a DOMLSInput, to utilize these framework classes, we need to provide a mechanism to map a SAX InputSource to a DOMLSInput. Two wrapper classes are available to interchange DOMLSInput and SAX InputSource:

Wrapper4DOMLSInput
 

Wraps a DOMLSInput object to a SAX InputSource.

    #include <xercesc/dom/DOMLSInput.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/framework/Wrapper4DOMLSInput.hpp>

    class DBInputSource: public DOMLSInput
    {
    ...
    };

    ...
    DOMLSInput *domIS = new DBInputSource;
    Wrapper4DOMLSInput domISWrapper(domIS);
    XercesDOMParser parser;

    parser.parse(domISWrapper);
           

Wrapper4InputSource
 

Wraps a SAX InputSource object to a DOMLSInput.

    #include <xercesc/framework/Wrapper4InputSource.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/framework/LocalFileInputSource.hpp>

    DOMLSInput* MyEntityResolver::resolveResource(  const XMLCh* const    resourceType
                                                  , const XMLCh* const    namespaceUri
                                                  , const XMLCh* const    publicId
                                                  , const XMLCh* const    systemId
                                                  , const XMLCh* const    baseURI)
    {
        return new Wrapper4InputSource(new LocalFileInputSource(baseURI, systemId));
    }

           

Please refer to the API Documentation for more detail.


DOMLSParser Supported Features
 

The behavior of the DOMLSParser is dependent on the values of the following features. All of the features below can be set using the function DOMLSParser::getDomConfig()->setParameter(cons XMLCh* , bool). And can be queried using the function bool DOMLSParser::getDomConfig()->getParameter(const XMLCh* const). User can also call DOMLSParser::getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(const XMLCh* , bool) to query whether setting a feature to a specific value is supported

DOM Features
 
cdata-sections 
true:  Keep CDATASection nodes in the document.  
false:  Not Supported.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMCDATASections  
note:  Setting this feature to false is not supported.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

comments 
true:  Keep Comment nodes in the document.  
false:  Discard Comment nodes in the document.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMComments  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

charset-overrides-xml-encoding 
true:  If a higher level protocol such as HTTP [IETF RFC 2616] provides an indication of the character encoding of the input stream being processed, that will override any encoding specified in the XML declaration or the Text declaration (see also [XML 1.0] 4.3.3 "Character Encoding in Entities"). Explicitly setting an encoding in the DOMInputSource overrides encodings from the protocol.  
false:  Any character set encoding information from higher level protocols is ignored by the parser.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMCharsetOverridesXMLEncoding  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

datatype-normalization 
true:  Let the validation process do its datatype normalization that is defined in the used schema language.  
false:  Disable datatype normalization. The XML 1.0 attribute value normalization always occurs though.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMDatatypeNormalization  
note:  Note that setting this feature to true does not affect the DTD normalization operation which always takes place, in accordance to XML 1.0 (Second Edition).  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  
see:  XML 1.0 (Second Edition).  

entities 
true:  Create EntityReference nodes in the DOM tree. The EntityReference nodes and their child nodes will be read-only.  
false:  Do not create EntityReference nodes in the DOM tree. No EntityReference nodes will be created, only the nodes corresponding to their fully expanded substitution text will be created.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMEntities  
note:  This feature only affects the appearance of EntityReference nodes in the DOM tree. The document will always contain the entity reference child nodes.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

canonical-form 
true:  Not Supported.  
false:  Do not canonicalize the document.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMCanonicalForm  
note:  Setting this feature to true is not supported.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

infoset 
true:  Not Supported.  
false:  No effect.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMInfoset  
note:  Setting this feature to true is not supported.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

namespaces 
true:  Perform Namespace processing  
false:  Do not perform Namespace processing 
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMNamespaces  
note:  If the validation is on, then the document must contain a grammar that supports the use of namespaces  
see:  validation  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

namespace-declarations 
true:  Include namespace declaration attributes, specified or defaulted from the schema or the DTD, in the document.  
false:  Not Supported.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMNamespaceDeclarations  
note:  Setting this feature to false is not supported.  
see:  namespaces  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

supported-mediatypes-only 
true:  Not Supported.  
false:  Don't check the media type, accept any type of data.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMSupportedMediatypesOnly  
note:  Setting this feature to true is not supported.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

validate-if-schema 
true:  When validation is true, the parser will validate the document only if a grammar is specified. 
false:  Validation is determined by the state of the validation feature.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMValidateIfSchema  
see:  validation  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

validation 
true:  Report all validation errors.  
false:  Do not report validation errors.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMValidate  
note:  If this feature is set to true, the document must specify a grammar. If this feature is set to false and document specifies a grammar, that grammar might be parsed but no validation of the document contents will be performed.  
see:  validate-if-schema  
see:  http://apache.org/xml/features/nonvalidating/load-external-dtd  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

whitespace-in-element-content 
true:  Include text nodes that can be considered "ignorable whitespace" in the DOM tree.  
false:  Do not include ignorable whitespace in the DOM tree.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMElementContentWhitespace  
note:  The only way that the parser can determine if text is ignorable is by reading the associated grammar and having a content model for the document. When ignorable whitespace text nodes are included in the DOM tree, they will be flagged as ignorable; and the method DOMText::isIgnorableWhitespace() will return true for those text nodes.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

Xerces Features
 
http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema 
true:  Enable the parser's schema support.  
false:  Disable the parser's schema support.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesSchema  
note  If set to true, namespace processing must also be turned on.  
see:  namespaces  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema-full-checking 
true:  Enable full schema constraint checking, including checking which may be time-consuming or memory intensive. Currently, particle unique attribution constraint checking and particle derivation restriction checking are controlled by this option.  
false:  Disable full schema constraint checking.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesSchemaFullChecking  
note:  This feature checks the Schema grammar itself for additional errors that are time-consuming or memory intensive. It does not affect the level of checking performed on document instances that use Schema grammars.  
see:  http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validating/load-schema 
true:  Load the schema.  
false:  Don't load the schema if it wasn't found in the grammar pool.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesLoadSchema  
note:  This feature is ignored and no schemas are loaded if schema processing is disabled.  
see:  schema  

http://apache.org/xml/features/nonvalidating/load-external-dtd 
true:  Load the External DTD.  
false:  Ignore the external DTD completely.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesLoadExternalDTD  
note  This feature is ignored and DTD is always loaded when validation is on.  
see:  validation  

http://apache.org/xml/features/continue-after-fatal-error 
true:  Attempt to continue parsing after a fatal error.  
false:  Stops parse on first fatal error.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesContinueAfterFatalError  
note:  The behavior of the parser when this feature is set to true is undetermined! Therefore use this feature with extreme caution because the parser may get stuck in an infinite loop or worse.  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation-error-as-fatal 
true:  The parser will treat validation error as fatal and will exit depends on the state of http://apache.org/xml/features/continue-after-fatal-error.  
false:  The parser will report the error and continue processing.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesValidationErrorAsFatal  
note:  Setting this true does not mean the validation error will be printed with the word "Fatal Error". It is still printed as "Error", but the parser will exit if http://apache.org/xml/features/continue-after-fatal-error is set to false.  
see:  http://apache.org/xml/features/continue-after-fatal-error  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/use-cachedGrammarInParse 
true:  Use cached grammar if it exists in the pool. 
false:  Parse the schema grammar. 
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesUseCachedGrammarInParse  
note:  If http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/cache-grammarFromParse is enabled, this feature is set to true automatically and any setting to this feature by the user is a no-op. 
see:  http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/cache-grammarFromParse  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/cache-grammarFromParse 
true:  Cache the grammar in the pool for re-use in subsequent parses. 
false:  Do not cache the grammar in the pool 
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesCacheGrammarFromParse  
note:  If set to true, the http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/use-cachedGrammarInParse is also set to true automatically. 
see:  http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/use-cachedGrammarInParse  

http://apache.org/xml/features/standard-uri-conformant 
true:  Force standard uri conformance.  
false:  Do not force standard uri conformance.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesStandardUriConformant  
note:  If set to true, malformed uri will be rejected and fatal error will be issued.  

http://apache.org/xml/features/calculate-src-ofs 
true:  Enable source offset calculation.  
false:  Disable source offset calculation.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesCalculateSrcOfs  
note:  If set to true, the user can inquire about the current source offset within the input source. Setting it to false (default) improves the performance. 

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/identity-constraint-checking 
true:  Enable identity constraint checking.  
false:  Disable identity constraint checking.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesIdentityConstraintChecking  

http://apache.org/xml/features/generate-synthetic-annotations 
true:  Enable generation of synthetic annotations. A synthetic annotation will be generated when a schema component has non-schema attributes but no child annotation.  
false:  Disable generation of synthetic annotations.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesGenerateSyntheticAnnotations  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validate-annotations 
true:  Enable validation of annotations.  
false:  Disable validation of annotations.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesValidateAnnotations  
note:  Each annotation is validated independently.  

http://apache.org/xml/features/schema/ignore-annotations 
true:  Do not generate XSAnnotations when traversing a schema. 
false:  Generate XSAnnotations when traversing a schema. 
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesIgnoreAnnotations  

http://apache.org/xml/features/disable-default-entity-resolution 
true:  The parser will not attempt to resolve the entity when the resolveEntity method returns NULL. 
false:  The parser will attempt to resolve the entity when the resolveEntity method returns NULL. 
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesDisableDefaultEntityResolution  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema/skip-dtd-validation 
true:  When schema validation is on the parser will ignore the DTD, except for entities. 
false:  The parser will not ignore DTDs when validating. 
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesSkipDTDValidation  
see:  Schema Validation 

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/ignoreCachedDTD 
true:  Ignore a cached DTD when an XML document contains both an internal and external DTD, and the use cached grammar from parse option is enabled. Currently, we do not allow using cached DTD grammar when an internal subset is present in the document. This option will only affect the behavior of the parser when an internal and external DTD both exist in a document (i.e. no effect if document has no internal subset). 
false:  Don't ignore cached DTD.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesIgnoreCachedDTD  
see:  http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/use-cachedGrammarInParse  

http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema/handle-multiple-imports 
true:  During schema validation allow multiple schemas with the same namespace to be imported. 
false:  Don't import multiple schemas with the same namespace.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesHandleMultipleImports  

http://apache.org/xml/features/dom-has-psvi-info 
true:  Enable storing of PSVI information in element and attribute nodes. 
false:  Disable storing of PSVI information in element and attribute nodes.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesDOMHasPSVIInfo  

http://apache.org/xml/features/dom/user-adopts-DOMDocument 
true:  The caller will adopt the DOMDocument that is returned from the parse method and thus is responsible to call DOMDocument::release() to release the associated memory. The parser will not release it. The ownership is transferred from the parser to the caller.  
false:  The returned DOMDocument from the parse method is owned by the parser and thus will be deleted when the parser is released.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesUserAdoptsDOMDocument  
see:  DOMLSParser API Documentation, (DOMLSParser::parse and DOMLSParser::resetDocumentPool)  



DOMLSParser Supported Properties
 

The behavior of the DOMLSParser is dependent on the values of the following properties. All of the properties below can be set using the function DOMLSParser::getDomConfig()->setParameter(const XMLCh* , const void*). It takes a void pointer as the property value. Application is required to initialize this void pointer to a correct type. Please check the column "Value Type" below to learn exactly what type of property value each property expects for processing. Passing a void pointer that was initialized with a wrong type will lead to unexpected result. If the same property is set more than once, the last one takes effect.

Property values can be queried using the function void* DOMLSParser::getDomConfig()->getParameter(const XMLCh* ). The parser owns the returned pointer, and the memory allocated for the returned pointer will be destroyed when the parser is released. To ensure accessibility of the returned information after the parser is released, callers need to copy and store the returned information somewhere else. Since the returned pointer is a generic void pointer, check the column "Value Type" below to learn exactly what type of object each property returns for replication.

Xerces Properties
 
http://apache.org/xml/properties/schema/external-schemaLocation 
Description  The XML Schema Recommendation explicitly states that the inclusion of schemaLocation/ noNamespaceSchemaLocation attributes in the instance document is only a hint; it does not mandate that these attributes must be used to locate schemas. Similar situation happens to <import> element in schema documents. This property allows the user to specify a list of schemas to use. If the targetNamespace of a schema specified using this method matches the targetNamespace of a schema occurring in the instance document in schemaLocation attribute, or if the targetNamespace matches the namespace attribute of <import> element, the schema specified by the user using this property will be used (i.e., the schemaLocation attribute in the instance document or on the <import> element will be effectively ignored).  
Value  The syntax is the same as for schemaLocation attributes in instance documents: e.g, "http://www.example.com file_name.xsd". The user can specify more than one XML Schema in the list.  
Value Type  XMLCh*  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesSchemaExternalSchemaLocation  

http://apache.org/xml/properties/schema/external-noNamespaceSchemaLocation 
Description  The XML Schema Recommendation explicitly states that the inclusion of schemaLocation/ noNamespaceSchemaLocation attributes in the instance document is only a hint; it does not mandate that these attributes must be used to locate schemas. This property allows the user to specify the no target namespace XML Schema Location externally. If specified, the instance document's noNamespaceSchemaLocation attribute will be effectively ignored.  
Value  The syntax is the same as for the noNamespaceSchemaLocation attribute that may occur in an instance document: e.g."file_name.xsd".  
Value Type  XMLCh*  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesSchemaExternalNoNameSpaceSchemaLocation  

http://apache.org/xml/properties/scannerName 
Description  This property allows the user to specify the name of the XMLScanner to use for scanning XML documents. If not specified, the default scanner "IGXMLScanner" is used. 
Value  The recognized scanner names are:
1."WFXMLScanner" - scanner that performs well-formedness checking only.
2. "DGXMLScanner" - scanner that handles XML documents with DTD grammar information.
3. "SGXMLScanner" - scanner that handles XML documents with XML schema grammar information.
4. "IGXMLScanner" - scanner that handles XML documents with DTD or/and XML schema grammar information.
Users can use the predefined constants defined in XMLUni directly (fgWFXMLScanner, fgDGXMLScanner, fgSGXMLScanner, or fgIGXMLScanner) or a string that matches the value of one of those constants. 
Value Type  XMLCh*  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesScannerName  
note:   See Use Specific Scanner for more programming details.  

http://apache.org/xml/properties/parser-use-DOMDocument-from-Implementation 
Description  This property allows the user to specify a set of features which the parser will then use to acquire an implementation from which it will create the DOMDocument to use when reading in an XML file. 
Value Type  XMLCh*  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesParserUseDocumentFromImplementation  

http://apache.org/xml/properties/security-manager 
Description  Certain valid XML and XML Schema constructs can force a processor to consume more system resources than an application may wish. In fact, certain features could be exploited by malicious document writers to produce a denial-of-service attack. This property allows applications to impose limits on the amount of resources the processor will consume while processing these constructs.  
Value  An instance of the SecurityManager class (see xercesc/util/SecurityManager). This class's documentation describes the particular limits that may be set. Note that, when instantiated, default values for limits that should be appropriate in most settings are provided. The default implementation is not thread-safe; if thread-safety is required, the application should extend this class, overriding methods appropriately. The parser will not adopt the SecurityManager instance; the application is responsible for deleting it when it is finished with it. If no SecurityManager instance has been provided to the parser (the default) then processing strictly conforming to the relevant specifications will be performed.  
Value Type  SecurityManager*  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesSecurityManager  

http://apache.org/xml/properties/low-water-mark 
Description  If the number of available bytes in the raw buffer is less than the low water mark the parser will attempt to read more data before continuing parsing. By default the value for this parameter is 100 bytes. You may want to set this parameter to 0 if you would like the parser to parse the available data immediately without potentially blocking while waiting for more date.  
Value  New low water mark.  
Value Type  XMLSize_t*  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgXercesLowWaterMark  




DOMLSSerializer
 
Constructing a DOMLSSerializer
 

DOMLSSerializer is a new interface introduced by the W3C DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification. DOMLSSerializer provides the "Save" interface for serializing (writing) a DOM document into XML data. The XML data can be written to various type of output stream.

A DOMLSSerializer instance is obtained from the DOMImplementationLS interface by invoking its createLSSerializer method. For example:

    #include <xercesc/dom/DOM.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/util/XMLString.hpp>
    #include <xercesc/util/PlatformUtils.hpp>

    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;
    using namespace xercesc;

    int serializeDOM(DOMNode* node) {

        XMLCh tempStr[100];
        XMLString::transcode("LS", tempStr, 99);
        DOMImplementation *impl = DOMImplementationRegistry::getDOMImplementation(tempStr);
        DOMLSSerializer* theSerializer = ((DOMImplementationLS*)impl)->createLSSerializer();

        // optionally you can set some features on this serializer
        if (theSerializer->getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMWRTDiscardDefaultContent, true))
            theSerializer->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMWRTDiscardDefaultContent, true);

        if (theSerializer->getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMWRTFormatPrettyPrint, true))
             theSerializer->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMWRTFormatPrettyPrint, true);

        // optionally you can implement your DOMLSSerializerFilter (e.g. MyDOMLSSerializerFilter)
        // and set it to the serializer
        DOMLSSerializer* myFilter = new myDOMLSSerializerFilter();
        theSerializer->setFilter(myFilter);

        // optionally you can implement your DOMErrorHandler (e.g. MyDOMErrorHandler)
        // and set it to the serializer
        DOMErrorHandler* errHandler = new myDOMErrorHandler();
        theSerializer->getDomConfig()->setParameter(XMLUni::fgDOMErrorHandler, myErrorHandler);

        // StdOutFormatTarget prints the resultant XML stream
        // to stdout once it receives any thing from the serializer.
        XMLFormatTarget *myFormTarget = new StdOutFormatTarget();
        DOMLSOutput* theOutput = ((DOMImplementationLS*)impl)->createLSOutput();
        theOutput->setByteStream(myFormTarget);

        try {
            // do the serialization through DOMLSSerializer::write();
            theSerializer->write(node, theOutput);
        }
        catch (const XMLException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.getMessage());
            cout << "Exception message is: \n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return -1;
        }
        catch (const DOMException& toCatch) {
            char* message = XMLString::transcode(toCatch.msg);
            cout << "Exception message is: \n"
                 << message << "\n";
            XMLString::release(&message);
            return -1;
        }
        catch (...) {
            cout << "Unexpected Exception \n" ;
            return -1;
        }

        theOutput->release();
        theSerializer->release();
        delete myErrorHandler;
        delete myFilter;
        delete myFormTarget;
        return 0;
    }

    

Please refer to the API Documentation and the sample DOMPrint for more detail.


How does DOMLSSerializer handle built-in entity Reference in node value?
 

Say for example you parse the following xml document using XercesDOMParser or DOMLSParser

<root>
<Test attr=" > ' &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &apos; "></Test>
<Test attr=' > " &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &apos; '></Test>
<Test> >  " ' &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &apos; </Test>
<Test><![CDATA[< > & " ' &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &apos; ] ]></Test>
</root>

According to XML 1.0 spec, 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and References, the parser will expand the entity reference as follows

<root>
<Test attr=" > ' < > & " ' "></Test>
<Test attr=' > " < > & " ' '></Test>
<Test> >  " ' < > & " ' </Test>
<Test><![CDATA[< > & " ' &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &apos; ] ]></Test>
</root>

and pass such DOMNode to DOMLSSerializer for serialization. From DOMLSSerializer perspective, it does not know what the original string was. All it sees is above DOMNode from the parser. But since the DOMLSSerializer is supposed to generate something that is parsable if sent back to the parser, it cannot print such string as is. Thus the DOMLSSerializer is doing some "touch up", just enough, to get the string parsable.

So for example since the appearance of < and & in text value will lead to not well-form XML error, the DOMLSSerializer fixes them to &lt; and &amp; respectively; while the >, ' and " in text value are ok to the parser, so DOMLSSerializer does not do anything to them. Similarly the DOMLSSerializer fixes some of the characters for the attribute value but keep everything in CDATA.

So the string that is generated by DOMLSSerializer will look like this

<root>
<Test attr=" > ' &lt; > &amp; &quot; ' "/>
<Test attr=" > &quot; &lt; > &amp; &quot; ' "/>
<Test> >  " ' &lt; > &amp; " ' </Test>
<Test><![CDATA[< > & " ' &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &apos; ] ]></Test>
</root>

Below is the table that summarizes how built-in entity reference are handled for different DOM node types:

Input/Output  <  >  &  "  '  &lt;  &gt;  &amp;  &quot;  &apos; 
Attribute  N/A  N/A  &quot;  &lt;  &amp;  &quot; 
Text  N/A  N/A  &lt;  &amp; 
CDATA  &lt;  &gt;  &amp;  &quot;  &apos; 

DOMLSSerializer Supported Features
 

The behavior of the DOMLSSerializer is dependent on the values of the following features. All of the features below can be set using the function DOMLSSerializer::getDomConfig()->setParameter(cons XMLCh* , bool). And can be queried using the function bool DOMLSSerializer::getDomConfig()->getParameter(const XMLCh* const). User can also call DOMLSSerializer::getDomConfig()->canSetParameter(const XMLCh* , bool) to query whether setting a feature to a specific value is supported

DOM Features
 
discard-default-content 
true:  Use whatever information available to the implementation (i.e. XML schema, DTD, the specified flag on Attr nodes, and so on) to decide what attributes and content should be discarded or not.  
false:  Keep all attributes and all content.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTDiscardDefaultContent  
note:  Note that the specified flag on Attr nodes in itself is not always reliable, it is only reliable when it is set to false since the only case where it can be set to false is if the attribute was created by the implementation. The default content won't be removed if an implementation does not have any information available.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

entities 
true:  EntityReference nodes are serialized as an entity reference of the form "&entityName;" in the output.  
false:  EntityReference nodes are serialized as expanded substitution text, unless the corresponding entity definition is not found.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTEntities  
note:  This feature only affects the output XML stream. The DOM tree to be serialized will not be changed.  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

canonical-form 
true:  Not Supported.  
false:  Do not canonicalize the output.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTCanonicalForm  
note:  Setting this feature to true is not supported.  
see:  format-pretty-print  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

format-pretty-print 
true:  Formatting the output by adding whitespace to produce a pretty-printed, indented, human-readable form. The exact form of the transformations is not specified by this specification.  
false:  Don't pretty-print the result.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTFormatPrettyPrint  
note:  Setting this feature to true will set the feature canonical-form to false.  
see:  canonical-form  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

normalize-characters 
true:  Not Supported.  
false:  Do not perform character normalization.  
note:  Setting this feature to true is not supported.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTNormalizeCharacters  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

split-cdata-sections 
true:  Split CDATA sections containing the CDATA section termination marker ']]>', or unrepresentable characters in the output encoding. When a CDATA section is split a warning is issued.  
false:  Signal an error if a CDATASection contains CDATA section termination marker ']]>', or an unrepresentable character.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTSplitCdataSections  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

validation 
true:  Not Supported.  
false:  Do not report validation errors.  
note:  Setting this feature to true is not supported.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTValidation  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

whitespace-in-element-content 
true:  Include text nodes that can be considered "ignorable whitespace" in the DOM tree.  
false:  Not Supported.  
note:  Setting this feature to false is not supported.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTWhitespaceInElementContent  
see:  DOM Level 3.0 Load and Save Specification  

xml declaration 
true:  Include xml declaration.  
false:  Do not include xml declaration.  
default:  true  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMXMLDeclaration  


Xerces Features
 
byte-order-mark 
true:  Enable the writing of the Byte-Order-Mark (BOM), in the resultant XML stream.  
false:  Disable the writing of BOM.  
note:  The BOM is written at the beginning of the resultant XML stream, if and only if a DOMDocumentNode is rendered for serialization, and the output encoding is among the encodings listed here (alias acceptable), UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-16LE, UTF-16BE, UCS-4, UCS-4LE, and UCS-4BE. In the case of UTF-16/UCS-4, the host machine's endian mode is referred to determine the appropriate BOM to be written.  
default:  false  
XMLUni Predefined Constant:  fgDOMWRTBOM  
see:  XML 1.0 Appendix F for more information about BOM.  




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